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Turabian Citation Style Guide 9th Edition: General Guidelines

About Turabian Style

Turabian style uses two basic documentation systems: notes-bibliography style and author-date style. However, at Luther Rice, with few exceptions, we use the notes-bibliography style. Therefore, that is the focus of this guide.

The 9th edition of A Manual for Writers has been updated to more fully address digital sources in academic research.

Turabian Manual

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Basic Style Examples

The Turabian Manual outlines two primary forms of citation in Chicago/Turabian. Luther Rice uses the Notes-Bibliography Style. As this is the form used at Luther Rice, this guide covers this form only.


Notes-Bibliography Style (17.1 - 17.10):

When using the bibliography style of citing your sources, insert a superscript number at the end of the sentence that you are referring to. The notes can then be arranged in numerical order at the foot of the page (Footnotes). The notes should include the complete bibliographic information when cited the first time.


In-text example:

He argues that "in an uncertain world, printed materials can be put to use in ways that make them powerful."1


Footnote example:

1 Adrian Johns, The Nature of the Book: Print and Knowledge in the Making (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998), 623.


Reference list (Bibliography) example:

Johns, Adrian. The Nature of the Book: Print and Knowledge in the Making. Chicago: University  of Chicago Press, 1998.


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