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Turabian Citation Style Guide 9th Edition: I. Ibid. and Shortened Footnote

About Citing Books

For each type of source in this guide, the general form and specific examples will be provided for the Notes-Bibliography style options of Turabian.

This information and several of the examples were drawn from A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (9th Edition). Numbers in parentheses refer to specific pages in the manual.

For further information, please ask your instructor or refer to the Turabian manual.

Ibid. and Shortened Footnote

The general format below refers to a shortened citation.

A shortened note should include enough information for readers to find the full citation in your bibliography or in an earlier note. (16.4.1)

1. Author-Only - Includes the author's last name and page number, separated by a comma and followed by a period.

2. Author-Title - Use author-title when citing more than one work by the same author. Include the author's last name separated by a comma, a shortened title composed of up to four distinctive words from the full title (in italics or quotation marks), followed by a comma and page number.

Ibid. (from ibidem or 'in the same place') is used to shorten a citation work cited in the immediately preceding note. In the footnote, Ibid. should not be italicized; should be capitalized; and since it is an abbreviation, must end with a period.  Put a comma after (Ibid., 99.) if the citation includes a page number. (16.4.2)


General Format

Superscript Note Number(space) Author First Name/Initial Author Last Name, Book Title: Subtitle (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year), page #(s).
Superscript Note Number(space) Author Last Name, page #(s).
Superscript Note Number(space) Author Last Name, Book Title: Subtitle, page #(s).
Superscript Note Number(space) Ibid., page #(s).
Bibliographic Entry:

Author Last Name, Author First Name or Initial. Book Title: Subtitle. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year.




The first time a reference is cited, the footnote must include full information in the order cited below.
1 Paul P. Enns, The Moody Handbook of Theology (Chicago: Moody Press, 1989), 25.


Subsequent footnotes for the same source should use the shortened form (author’s or editor’s last name, page number).

2 Enns, 28.

Subsequent footnote for the same source preceded by a different work or on a different page.

3 Enns, Moody Handbook of Theology, 91.
3 Enns, Joshua Bible Commentary, 13.


Subsequent footnote when the source is the same as the previous one on the same page.

4 Ibid.


Subsequent footnote when the source is the same as the previous one on a different page.
5 Ibid., 33.


Bibliographic Entry:
Enns, Paul P. The Moody Handbook of Theology. Chicago: Moody Press, 1989. (Always use hanging indents for bibliography entries.)

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